Low EMF solar charge control
using a voltage-controlled switch


Modern solar charge controllers produce dirty electricity which can be problematic for people who are particularly sensitive.  An alternative is to use a voltage-controlled switch and a blocking diode as a simple charge controller.


Keywords:  low EMF, low voltage DC, solar charge control, 12 volt, 24 volt, 48 volt, solar electricity, dirty electricity, voltage controlled switch, Solar Converters, pulse width modulation


The problem with todayÕs charge controllers

A charge controller is an essential part of a solar electric system.  It disconnects the power from the solar panels when the battery bank is full, so the batteries do not get over charged.  It also has a built-in diode to prevent electricity from running backwards at night.


TodayÕs solar charge controllers are much more sophisticated than yesterdayÕs simple on/off models.  They employ electronic controls to charge the batteries more efficiently, using voltage modifications and pulsing.  These methods include Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) and Pulse Width Modulation (PWM).  These produce voltage fluctuations in the low end of the radio frequency (RF) range, which is called dirty electricity.  These voltage fluctuations travel on all wires that are connected to the solar system.  Even if the batteries, solar panels and controller are in a separate building from the house it serves, the dirty electricity will be in the house as well, if connected to the solar system.


This is not a problem for most people, but some are hypersensitive to dirty electricity and may get symptoms such as headaches, irritability, sleep problems, tinnitus and ADHD.  Research on dirty electricity also suggests effects on people with certain types of diabetes.


According to a solar industry magazine (Home Power, Feb/March 2013, page 40), PWM charge controllers can also cause interference with short wave radios.


The voltage-switch alternative

It is nearly impossible to find a charge controller today which does not have MPPT, PWM or other problems for sensitive people.  An alternative is to use a voltage-controlled switch and a blocking diode.


A voltage-controlled switch can open a relay and disconnect the solar panel when the battery gets full.  For a 12-volt system, this is typically around 14.4 volts.


With the battery no longer being charged, the voltage will slowly decrease.  When it reaches 13.0 volts, it is time to turn the solar panel back on again.  With the batteries charging, the voltage will rise again, until it again reaches the 14.4 volts.


The voltage switch will thus turn the solar panel on and off several times during a day.  The early solar charge controllers worked the same way.


In addition to a voltage-switch, there also needs to be a blocking diode.  It makes sure that electricity only runs in one direction — from the solar panel to the battery.  Without it, electricity can run backwards at night, from the battery to the solar panel.


The diode will get warm, so it will need to be a sturdy type capable of handling the power going through it.  It will usually need cooling fins to avoid getting too hot.  They can be bought ready-made from solar supply houses catering to do-it-yourselfers.


Diagram of solar system with voltage switch and blocking diode.


Using the Solar Converters switch as charge controller

The following describes how to use a specific brand of voltage switch.  The information should generally apply to other brands as well.


A Solar Converters switch in use as a charge controller (inside open box).
The blocking diode with its cooling fins is mounted on the wall, above the box.
A DC breaker box is on the right.


The active-high voltage switch from Canadian company Solar Converters has been used successfully as a solar charge controller.  It can work for both 12, 24 and 48 volt systems.


That it is Òactive-highÓ means that the relay is activated when the voltage is high, i.e. when the solar panel is to be disconnected.


An Òactive-lowÓ switch could be used also, but then the relay will be active a lot more, including all night, which is not desirable.


The ÒlowÓ and Òhigh voltages are adjustable, using a voltmeter and a small screwdriver.  The maximum voltage is 60 volts, which makes this model usable for solar systems up to nominally 48 volts.


The relay can handle up to 30 amps, i.e. about 360 watts, for a 12 volt system.  (720 watts for 24 volts/1440 watts for 48 volts).  A larger current is possible with an additional relay (see later).


The Solar Converters switch has seven terminals; they are, from left to right:



Normally open relay output


Common relay input


Normally closed relay output

Circuit board power, minus


Circuit board power, plus


Circuit board power, plus (usually used as sensor input


Sensor input


The positive (+) from the solar panel is connected to the COM terminal.


The NO terminal is not used.


The NC is connected to the blocking diode.  The other side of the blocking diode is connected to the battery positive (through a fuse or breaker).


The + and – terminals for the circuit board power are connected to the battery (via breaker box).


The sensor input is connected to the + terminal next to it (default).


The solar panel minus (–) is connected straight to the battery.


Close-up of mounted voltage switch.  Power from the solar panels
enters from the top-left side on the red and white wires.


Demounted voltage switch and blocking diode.


Make sure to use appropriately sized electrical wires and fuses/breakers.  An AWG #12 wire can maximum handle 20 amps, an AWG #10 can handle 30 amps.  Larger sizes are better, to minimize line losses.


It is best to have a breaker on both sides of the switch as shown on the diagram on page 2.  This is required by the National Electric Code (NEC 2011 690.15).


Adjusting the trip points

The voltage switch can be adjusted to which voltages the relay is triggered (High Trip Point) and released (Low Trip Point).


This adjustment is easy to do.  It requires a multimeter and a small screwdriver.  It takes about two minutes.


If the batteries are not kept at room temperature year round, the High Trip Point will need to be adjusted according to the battery temperature (i.e. average 24 hour temperature in the room/box).  In practice, that may mean an adjustment every three weeks or so during fall and spring.  The Low Trip Point should be kept at 13.0 volts at all times.


Adjusting the trip points.  The red and black ÒsticksÓ on the left
are probes from a voltmeter.


Typical High Trip point for average battery temperature:


32¼ F

0¼ C

15.3 Volts

50¼ F

10¼ C

14.9 Volts

68¼ F

20¼ C

14.6 Volts

86¼ F

30¼ C

14.2 Volts

104¼ F

40¼ C

13.9 Volts


Equalization can be done by temporarily raising the High Trip point by 1 volt.


A voltmeter (multimeter) is used to check the current trip points.  The probes are put into little sockets on the board (see picture).  The voltage displayed is 1/10 of the actual voltage (i.e. 1.30 for 13.0 volts).


Having a thermometer in the battery room, which records the low and high temperature, can help in finding the average temperature.


Damping dirty electricity

The Solar Converters switch generates a little dirty electricity when the relay is activated.  The relay is only activated when the battery is full, i.e. some parts of a sunny day.  It will never be activated at night.


The frequency put out has been measured to be around 22 kilohertz.


This can essentially be eliminated by installing a capacitor across the plus and minus power input to the circuit board.  A 4 microfarad capacitor works well; the exact size is not important.


A capacitor mounted across the + and – terminals powering the circuit board.


If one wanted to totally eliminate the voltage transients, it could be done by powering the circuit board from a separate electrical system (referred to as AUX system here).  This should not be necessary, but can be done as follows:


The AUX system could have a small solar panel (1-5 watts) and a small battery (minimum, 5 Ah).


The minus for the AUX system must be connected to the minus for the main system, otherwise the sensor wonÕt work.


The sensor input must be connected to the positive on the main system (as in the regular setup).


Larger solar systems

If the solar array is larger than 30 amps (360 watts/12 volts, 720 watts/24 volts, 1440 watts/48 volts) it is possible to go higher by adding a relay.


The solar array must be divided in two.  One sends power (+) through the voltage switch (up to 30 amps), the other sends power (+) through the extra relay.


The coil/solenoid of the extra relay is connected to the NO (Normally Open) terminal on the voltage switch, so when the voltage switch is triggered, the extra relay is triggered also.


The second set of solar panels are then connected to the NC (Normally Closed) terminal on the extra relay (just as the first set of panels are connected to the NC terminal on the voltage switch)


The minus (–) wires from the two solar arrays are connected to each other, and passed straight through, as for the regular setup.



Large-capacity solar system with slave relay to handle second solar array


Relays are available from automotive supply stores, electronic supply houses and some solar outlets.


Make sure the blocking diode can handle the combined amperage, or use two separate diodes.


The wires and breakers must be sized for the amperage.  The fire safety code specifies that an AWG #8 wire can maximum handle 45 amps (540 watts/12 volt, 1080 watts/24 volt) while a #6 wire can maximum handle 65 amps (780 watts/12 volt, 1560 watts/24 volt).  The wires should be thicker than required by the fire code, to reduce line losses.


It is probably most efficient to have two arrays of approximately the same size.


Experiences with the Solar Converters switch

The Solar Converters switch has been in use by the author for nine months as of this writing.  It works well, but will need to be kept above freezing temperatures.


One time, it was exposed to freezing temperatures, so the relay froze and didnÕt move when it should have.  This just gave the batteries an equalization run, but prolonged overcharging will damage the batteries.


With the room temperature about 35¼ F (2¼ C) it reported the Trip Points as 11.0 and 13.0 volts, even though they were set at 13.0 and 15.1 volts on a warmer day.  The switch still operated the relay at the correct voltages.


If adjusting the switch at a low room temperature (below 40¼ F / 5¼ C or so), verify the trip points by monitoring the battery voltage while letting the system go through a charge cycle.  Keeping the switch (and batteries) in a heated room is better.



The voltage switch and blocking diode were purchased from Kansas Wind Power (785-364-4407).


For more information about low-EMF solar systems, see www.eiwellspring.org/offgrid.html



Spring 2013