References and notes for Introduction to Electrical Hypersensitivity

This is the companion document containing references and notes.  The main document can be found at


Austrian Medical Association
Guideline of the Austrian Medical Association for the diagnosis and treatment of EMF-related health problems and illness (EMF syndrome), March 2012.

Abelous, D.
France has its first radiation-free refuge in the Drome, Agence France Press, Oct 9, 2009

Alster, N.
Captured agency, Edmond Safra Center for Ethics, Harvard University, 2015.

Belpomme, D. et al.
Reliable disease biomarkers characterizing and identifying electrohypersensitivity and multiple chemical sensitivity as two etiopathogenic aspects of a unique pathological disorder, Reviews on Environmental Health, 30(4), 251-271, 2015

Belyaev, I. et al.
EUROPAEM EMF Guideline 2016 for the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of EMF-related health problems and illnesses, Reviews on Environmental Health, 2016.

Blank, M.
Overpowered: what science tells us about the dangers of cell phones and other wifi-age devices, Seven Stories press, 2014.

Boyd I, G. Rubin and S. Wessely
Taking refuge from modernity: 21st century hermits, Journal of Research in Social Medicine, 105:523-529, 2012.

Brussels Declaration
Brussels international declaration on electromagnetic hypersensitivity and multiple chemical sensitivity, Brussels, 2015.

Brygelson, L.
Elderly man with EHS abused by hospital and nursing home, EI Wellspring, 2014.

Clear Light Ventures.
Autism One 2016: The wireless-free tent experience,, Sept 8, 2016.

Council of Europe.
Resolution 1815, the potential dangers of electromagnetic fields and their effect on the environment, Council of Europe, May 27, 2011.

Cara, E.                              
The curse of a ‘none of the above’ disease, Undark, July 24, 2017.

Dalsegg, A.
Far hodesmerter av mobilstraling, Dag bladet, (Norway), March 9, 2002.

Davis, D.
Disconnect: the truth about cell phone radiation, what the industry has done to hide it, and how to protect your family, Dutton, 2010.

De Luca, C. et al
The Search for Reliable Biomarkers of Disease in Multiple Chemical Sensitivity and Other Environmental Intolerances, International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 2011, 8, 2770-2797 (doi: 10.3390/ijerph8072770)

Dieudonne, M.
Does electromagnetic hypersensitivity originate from nocebo responses? Bioelectromagnetics, 37, 14-24, 2016

Divan HA, Kheifets L, Obel C, Olsen J.
Prenatal and Postnatal Exposures to Cell Phone Use and Behavioral Problems in Children, Epidemiology, July 2008, 19: 523-529

Divan HA, Kheifets L, Obel C, Olsen J.
Cell phone use and behavioral problems in young children, British Medical Journal, 2012.

Eberhardt, J. et al.
Blood-Brain Barrier Permeability and Nerve Cell Damage in Rat Brain 14 and 28 Days After Exposure to Microwaves from GSM Mobile Phones, Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine, 2008, 27: 215-229

EI Wellspring, 2018a
How outsiders interpret a video about people with chemical and electrical sensitivities,, 2018.

EI Wellspring, 2018b.
Physicians wrong two dozen times when believing diseases were psychological,, 2018

EI Wellspring, 2018c.
Shielding the office saved her career,, 2018.

EI Wellspring, 2019.
Snowflake MCS/EHS community,, 2019.

Elder, J.A. and C.K. Chou.
Auditory response to pulsed radiofrequency energy, Bioelectromagnetics, Suppl. 6, S162-S173, 2003.

Engels, S.
Anthropogenic electromagnetic noise disrupts magnetic compass orientation in a migratory bird, Nature, May 15, 2014.

Evans, J.
Chemical and electrical hypersensitivity: a sufferer’s memoir, McFarland, 2010.

Eltiti, S. et al
Development and Evaluation of the Electromagnetic Hypersensitivity Questionnaire, Bioelectromagnetics, 2007, 28:137-151

FEB – The Swedish association of electrically sensitive.
Halsoeffekter av electromagnetiska falt: rapport fran en medlemsenkat 2005 (Health effects from electromagnetic fields: a membership survey in 2005), 2007.  An English language summary is available as “Survey of people with electrical sensitivities in Sweden” on

FTC – Federal Trade Commission.
Cell phone radiation scams, Sept 2011.

Gangi S, Johansson O
A theoretical model based upon mast cells and histamine to explain the recently proclaimed sensitivity to electric and/or magnetic fields in humans, Medical Hypotheses, 2000, 54(4), 663-671

Frey, A.
Human auditory system response to modulated electromagnetic energy, Journal of Applied Physiology, 17, 689-692, 1962.

Genuis, S. and Lipp, C.
Electromagnetic hypersensitivity: fact or fiction? Science of the Total Environment, 2011.

Gaynor, M.
The town without Wi-Fi, Washingtonian, Jan 2015.

Grandin, T.
The Way I See It: A Personal Look at Autism and Asperger’s, Future Horizons, 2015

Greenwood, V.
The Clocks Within Our Cells, Scientific American, July 2018.

Granlund-Lind, R. and John Lind.
Black on White: voices and witnesses about electrohypersensitivity, Mimers Brunn, 2004.

Haas, L.
The disbelieved, The New Yorker, June 4 & 11, 2018.

Hagstrom, M. et al.
Reducing electromagnetic irradiation and fields alleviates experienced health hazards of VDU work, Pathophysiology, 19, 81-87, 2012.

Hardell, L. et al., 2008.
Increased concentrations of certain persistent organic pollutants in subjects with self-reported electromagnetic hypersensitivity- a pilot study, Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine, 27: 197-203, 2008.

Hardell, L., 2017a.
World Health Organization radiofrequency radiation and health – a hard nut to crack, Int’l Journal of Oncology, 2017

Hardell, L., 2017b.
High radiofrequency radiation at Stockholm Old Town: An exposimeter study including the Royal Castle, Supreme Court, three major squares and the Swedish Parliament, Molecular and Clinical Oncology, 6, 462-476, 2017.

Hardell, L., Carlbert, M., Hedendahl, L., 2018a
Radiofrequency radiation from nearby base stations gives high levels in an apartment in Stockholm Sweden: a case report, Oncology Letters, 2018.

Hardell, L., et al., 2018b
Environmental radiofrequency radiation at the Jarntorget square in Stockholm Old Town, Sweden in May, 2018 compared with results on brain and heart tumour risks in rats exposed to 1.8 GHz base station environmental emissions, World Academy of Sciences Journal, 2018.

Hardern, R. D. et al.
How evidence based are therapeutic decisions taken on a medical admissions unit? Emergency Medical Journal, 20, 447-448, 2003.

Havas, M., M. Illiatovich and Cameron Proctor.
Teacher and student response to the removal of dirty electricity by the Graham/Stetzer filter at Willow Wood school in Toronto, Canada, Biological effects of EMFs, 3rd international workshop, Oct 2004.

Hedendahl, L. et al.
Electromagnetic hypersensitivity – an increasing challenge to the medical profession, Reviews on Environmental Health, 30 (4), 209-215, 2015.

Heuser, G.
Functional brain MRI in patients complaining of electrohypersensitivity after long term exposure to electromagnetic fields, Reviews on Env Health, 2017.

Herbert, M. and Sage, C.
Autism and EMF? Plausibility of a pathophysiological link – part 1, Pathophysiology, 20 (2013) 191-209.

Hillert L, Berglind N, Arnetz BB, Bellander T
Prevalence of self-reported hypersensitivity to electric or magnetic fields in a population-based questionnaire survey, Scandinavian Journal of Work Environ Health, 2002, 28 (1), 33-41

Huss, A. et al.
Source of Funding and Results of Studies of Health Effects of Mobile Phone Use: Systematic Review of Experimental Studies, Environmental Health Perspectives, January 2007

Ioannidis, J.
Rethink funding, the way we pay for science does not encourage the best results, Scientific American, Oct 2018.

Ingram, S.
Summer camp for families with electrically sensitive children,, 2014.

Johansson, O.
Aspects of studies on the functional impairment electrohypersensitivity, IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science 10 (2010).

Kirschvink, J.
Microwave absorption by magnetite: a possible mechanism for coupling nonthermal levels of radiation to biological systems, Bioelectromagnetics, 17:187-194 (1996).

Ladberg, G.
Forced to disconnect: electrohypersensitive fugitive in Sweden, 2010.

Le Monde
Premiere reconnaissance d’un handicap du a l’electrosensibilite en France (First recognition of a disability due to electrosensitivity in France), Le Monde/AFP, Aug 25, 2015.

LeRoy, J. et al.
Treatment efficacy: a survey of 305 MCS patients, The CFIDS Chronicle, Winter 1996.

Levy, A.
Teenager ‘Kills herself in cry for help over allergy to wi-fi', Daily Mail, Dec 1, 2015.

Loria-Kohen et al.
Multiple chemical sensitivity: Genotypic characterization, nutritional status and quality of life in 52 patients, Medicina Clinica, (Spain), 149, 141-146, 2017.

Li D, Chen H, Odouli R
Maternal Exposure to Magnetic Fields During Pregnancy in Relation to the Risk of Asthma in Offspring, Archives of Pediatric Adolescent Medicine, August 2011

Levallois, P. et al.
Study of Self-Reported Hypersensitivity to Electromagnetic Fields in California, Environmental Health Perspectives, 2002, 110 Supp 4, 619-623

McCarty DE, et al.
Electromagnetic Hypersensitivity: Evidence for a Novel Neurological Syndrome, International Journal of Neuroscience, 121, 670-676, 2011

McCambell, A.
Multiple Chemical Sensitivity, Environmental Health Connection, 2011.

McGarity, T. and Wagner W.
Bending science: how special interests corrupt public health research, Harvard University Press, 2008.

Marshall, T. and T. J. R. Heil.
Electrosmog and autoimmune disease, Immunologic Research, 65(1), 129-135, 2017.

MWN – Microwave News, 2006.
“Radiation Research” and the cult of negative results, Microwave News, July 31, 2006.

MWN – Microwave News, 2010.
Scams galore, Microwave News, Oct 20, 2010.

Nittby, H. et al.
Radiofrequency and extremely low-frequency electromagnetic field effects on the blood-brain barrier, Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine, 27:103-126, 2008.

Nordstrom, G.
Morklaggning – Elektronikens rattslosa offer (Swedish), Stockholm: Hjalmarson & Hogberg, 2000.

Nuland, S.
How we die, Vintage Books/Random House, 1993.

Oreskes, N. and Conway E.
Merchants of doubt, Bloomsbury Press, 2010.

Pall, M.
Electromagnetic fields act via activation of voltage-gated calcium channels to produce beneficial or adverse effects, Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, Aug 17, 2013, 958-965.

Rea, WJ, et al.
Electromagnetic Field Sensitivity, Journal of Bioelectricity, 1991, 10 (1 & 2), 241-256

Rubin, G. J. et al.
Electromagnetic hypersensitivity: a systematic review of provocation studies, Psychosomatic Medicine, 67, 2005.

Rubin, G. J. et al.
Do people with idiopathic environmental intolerance attributed to electromagnetic fields display physiological effects when exposed to electromagnetic fields? A systematic review of provocation studies, Bio Electro Magnetics, July 18, 2011.

Sage, C and Carpenter, D.
Bioinitiative, a rationale for a biologically-based public exposure standard for electromagnetic fields (ELF and RF),, 2007.

Schreier, N. et al.
The prevalence of symptoms attributed to electromagnetic field exposure: a cross-sectional representative survey in Switzerland, Soz Praventiv Med, 51(2006), 202-209.

Sandstrom, M. et al.
Neurophysiological effects of flickering light in patients with perceived electrical hypersensitivity, Journal of Environmental Medicine (JOEM), 39, January 1997.

Solberg, L. A. and B. G. Tilset, Eloverfolsomhet i Norge – rapport fra sporreundersokelse 2007-2008, (Norwegian), FELO, 2010. (An English summary is “Results of a Norwegian EHS survey” by Bente Tilset).

Spiegel, D.
Placebos in practice, British Medical Journal, Oct 23, 2004.

Thomas, S. et al.
Exposure to radio-frequency electromagnetic fields and behavioral problems in Bavarian children and adolescents, European Journal of Epidemiology, December 2009

Tuller, D.
Trial by error: a Q-and-A with Leonard Jason, on case definition, virology blog about viruses and viral diseases, May 2, 2018.

Tell, R. A and E. D. Mantiply.
Population exposure to VHF and UHF broadcast radiation in the United States, Proceedings of the IEEE, 68, Jan 1980.

Uddmar, T.
RF exposure from wireless communication, Chalmers Technical University, Sweden, 1999.

Uddmar, T. and Hamnerius, Y.
Measurements of radio frequency exposure in two Swedish villages, Chalmers Technical University, Sweden, 2000.

Wieske, C.
Human Sensitivity to Electric Fields, Proceedings of Biomedical Sciences Instrumentation, 467-475, 1963

Tinnitus, accessed January 2019.


2008 (updated 2019)