References and notes for Introduction to Electrical Hypersensitivity

This is the companion document containing references and notes.  The main document can be found at


Austrian Medical Association
Guideline of the Austrian Medical Association for the diagnosis and treatment of EMF-related health problems and illness (EMF syndrome), March 2012.

Abelous, D.
France has its first radiation-free refuge in the Drome, Agence France Press, Oct 9, 2009

Alsaeed, I. et al.
Autism-relevant social abnormalities in mice exposed perinatally to extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields, International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience, 37, 58-64, 2014.

Alster, N.
Captured agency, Edmond Safra Center for Ethics, Harvard University, 2015.

Bako-Biro Z. et al.
Effects of pollution from personal computers on perceived air quality, SBS symptoms and productivity in offices, Indoor Air 14, June 2004.

Baliatsas, C. et al. Comparing non-specific physical symptoms in environmentally sensitive patients: prevalence, duration, functional status and illness behavior, Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 2014.

Ballweg, Mary Lou.
Psychologizing of endometriosis, Clinical Consultations in Obstetrics and Gynecology, 7, September 1995.

Beaumont-Thomas, Ben. Ricky Gardiner, guitarist for David Bowie and Iggy Pop, dies aged 73, The Guardian, May 17, 2022. (Also search for his blog).

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Scope and impact of financial conflicts of interest in biomedical research, Journal of the American Medical Association, January 22/29, 2003.

Belkin, Lisa.  Sufferers find haven from chemical world, New York Times, December 2, 1990.

Belpomme, D. et al. 

Reliable disease biomarkers characterizing and identifying electrohypersensitivity and multiple chemical sensitivity as two etiopathogenic aspects of a unique pathological disorder, Reviews on Environmental Health, 30(4), 251-271, 2015

Belpomme, Dominique and Philippe K. Irigaray. Electrohypersensitivity as newly identified and characterized neurologic pathological disorder: how to diagnose, treat and prevent it, International Journal of Molecular Science, 21, 2020.

Belyaev, I. et al.
EUROPAEM EMF Guideline 2016 for the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of EMF-related health problems and illnesses, Reviews on Environmental Health, 2016.

Blank, Martin.
Overpowered: what science tells us about the dangers of cell phones and other wifi-age devices, Seven Stories press, 2014.

Boyd I, G. Rubin and S. Wessely
Taking refuge from modernity: 21st century hermits, Journal of Research in Social Medicine, 105:523-529, 2012.

Brussels Declaration
Brussels international declaration on electromagnetic hypersensitivity and multiple chemical sensitivity, Brussels, 2015.

Brygelson, L.
Elderly man with EHS abused by hospital and nursing home, EI Wellspring, 2014.

Carpenter, David O.
Extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields and cancer: how source of funding affects results, Environmental Research, 2019

Cara, E.                              
The curse of a ‘none of the above’ disease, Undark, July 24, 2017.

CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)

Health effects of cigarette smoking, CDC website, October 29, 2021.

Clear Light Ventures.
Autism One 2016: The wireless-free tent experience,, Sept 8, 2016.

Council of Europe.
Resolution 1815, the potential dangers of electromagnetic fields and their effect on the environment, Council of Europe, May 27, 2011.

Dalsegg, A.
Far hodesmerter av mobilstraling, Dagbladet, (Norway), March 9, 2002.

Davis, D.
Disconnect: the truth about cell phone radiation, what the industry has done to hide it, and how to protect your family, Dutton, 2010.

De Luca, C. et al
The Search for Reliable Biomarkers of Disease in Multiple Chemical Sensitivity and Other Environmental Intolerances, International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 2011, 8, 2770-2797

Dieudonne, M.
Does electromagnetic hypersensitivity originate from nocebo responses? Bioelectromagnetics, 37, 14-24, 2016

Divan HA, Kheifets L, Obel C, Olsen J.
Prenatal and Postnatal Exposures to Cell Phone Use and Behavioral Problems in Children, Epidemiology, July 2008, 19: 523-529

Divan HA, Kheifets L, Obel C, Olsen J.
Cell phone use and behavioral problems in young children, British Medical Journal, 2012.

Dodick, David W. and J. Jay Gargus,
Why migraines strike, Scientific American, August 2008.

Eberhardt, J. et al.
Blood-Brain Barrier Permeability and Nerve Cell Damage in Rat Brain 14 and 28 Days After Exposure to Microwaves from GSM Mobile Phones, Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine, 2008, 27: 215-229

EI Wellspring, 2018a
Social media reactions to a video about people with chemical and electrical sensitivities,, 2018.

EI Wellspring, 2018b.
Physicians wrong two dozen times when believing diseases were psychological,, 2018

EI Wellspring, 2018c.
Shielding the office saved her career,, 2018.

EI Wellspring, 2019.
Snowflake MCS/EHS community,, 2019.

Elder, J.A. and C.K. Chou.
Auditory response to pulsed radiofrequency energy, Bioelectromagnetics, Suppl. 6, S162-S173, 2003.

Engels, S.
Anthropogenic electromagnetic noise disrupts magnetic compass orientation in a migratory bird, Nature, May 15, 2014.

Evans, J.
Chemical and electrical hypersensitivity: a sufferer’s memoir, McFarland, 2010.

Evans, J.
The healthy house quest, Snowflake, AZ: Turquoise Rose Publishing, 2019

Dongen, Diana et al.

Symptom attribution and risk perception in individuals with idiopathic environmental intolerance to electromagnetic fields and in the general population, Perspectives in Public Health, 2013.

Eltiti, S. et al
Development and Evaluation of the Electromagnetic Hypersensitivity Questionnaire, Bioelectromagnetics, 2007, 28:137-151

FEB – The Swedish association of electrically sensitive.
Halsoeffekter av electromagnetiska falt: rapport fran en medlemsenkat 2005 (Health effects from electromagnetic fields: a membership survey in 2005), 2007.  An English language summary is available as “Survey of people with electrical sensitivities in Sweden” on

Firstenberg, A.
The invisible rainbow, Santa Fe: AGB Publishing, 2017.

Frey, A.
Human auditory system response to modulated electromagnetic energy, Journal of Applied Physiology, 17, 689-692, 1962.

FTC – Federal Trade Commission.
Cell phone radiation scams, Sept 2011.

Gangi S, Johansson O
A theoretical model based upon mast cells and histamine to explain the recently proclaimed sensitivity to electric and/or magnetic fields in humans, Medical Hypotheses, 2000, 54(4), 663-671

Gaynor, M.
The town without Wi-Fi, Washingtonian, Jan 2015.

Genuis, S. and Lipp, C.
Electromagnetic hypersensitivity: fact or fiction? Science of the Total Environment, 2011.

Grandin, T.
The Way I See It: A Personal Look at Autism and Asperger’s, Future Horizons, 2015

Granlund-Lind, R. and John Lind.
Black on White: voices and witnesses about electrohypersensitivity, Mimers Brunn, 2004.

Greco, Frederic.

Technical assessment of ultrasonic cerebral tomosphygmography and new scientific evaluation of its clinical interest for the diagnosis of electrohypersensitivity and multiple chemical sensitivity, Diagnostics, June 24, 2020.

Greenwood, V.
The Clocks Within Our Cells, Scientific American, July 2018.

Haas, L.
The disbelieved, The New Yorker, June 4 & 11, 2018.

Hagstrom, M. et al.
Reducing electromagnetic irradiation and fields alleviates experienced health hazards of VDU work, Pathophysiology, 19, 81-87, 2012.

Hagstrom, M. et al.
Electromagnetic hypersensitive Finns: symptoms, perceived sources and treatments, a questionnaire study, Pathophysiology, April, 2013.

Hardell, L. et al., 2008.
Increased concentrations of certain persistent organic pollutants in subjects with self-reported electromagnetic hypersensitivity- a pilot study, Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine, 27: 197-203, 2008.

Hardell, L., 2017a.
World Health Organization radiofrequency radiation and health – a hard nut to crack, Int’l Journal of Oncology, 2017

Hardell, al., 2017b.
High radiofrequency radiation at Stockholm Old Town: An exposimeter study including the Royal Castle, Supreme Court, three major squares and the Swedish Parliament, Molecular and Clinical Oncology, 6, 462-476, 2017.

Hardell, L., Carlbert, M., Hedendahl, L., 2018a
Radiofrequency radiation from nearby base stations gives high levels in an apartment in Stockholm Sweden: a case report, Oncology Letters, 2018.

Hardell, L., et al., 2018b
Environmental radiofrequency radiation at the Jarntorget square in Stockholm Old Town, Sweden in May, 2018 compared with results on brain and heart tumour risks in rats exposed to 1.8 GHz base station environmental emissions, World Academy of Sciences Journal, 2018.

Hardell, Lennart and Tarmo Koppel, 2022.

Electromagnetic hypersensitivity close to mobile phone base stations-a case study in Stockholm, Sweden Reviews of Environmental Health, 2022.

Hardern, R. D. et al.
How evidence based are therapeutic decisions taken on a medical admissions unit? Emergency Medical Journal, 20, 447-448, 2003.

Havas, M., M. Illiatovich and Cameron Proctor.
Teacher and student response to the removal of dirty electricity by the Graham/Stetzer filter at Willow Wood school in Toronto, Canada, Biological effects of EMFs, 3rd international workshop, Oct 2004.

Hedendahl, L. et al.
Electromagnetic hypersensitivity – an increasing challenge to the medical profession, Reviews on Environmental Health, 30 (4), 209-215, 2015.

Heuser, G.
Functional brain MRI in patients complaining of electrohypersensitivity after long term exposure to electromagnetic fields, Reviews on Env Health, 2017.

Herbert, M. and Sage, C.
Autism and EMF? Plausibility of a pathophysiological link – part 1, Pathophysiology, 20 (2013) 191-209.

Hillert L, Berglind N, Arnetz BB, Bellander T
Prevalence of self-reported hypersensitivity to electric or magnetic fields in a population-based questionnaire survey, Scandinavian Journal of Work Environ Health, 2002, 28 (1), 33-41

Hojo, Sachiko et al.
Development and evaluation of an electromagnetic hypersensitivity questionnaire for Japanese people, Bioelectromagnetics, 37, 353-372, 2016.

Huang, Po-Chang et al.
Representative survey on idiopathic environmental intolerance attributed to electromagnetic fields in Taiwan and comparison with the international literature, Environmental Health, 17, January 2018.

Huss, A. et al.
Source of Funding and Results of Studies of Health Effects of Mobile Phone Use: Systematic Review of Experimental Studies, Environmental Health Perspectives, January 2007

Ioannidis, J.
Rethink funding, the way we pay for science does not encourage the best results, Scientific American, Oct 2018.

Ingram, S.
Summer camp for families with electrically sensitive children,, 2014.

Irigaray, Phillipe et al. (2018a)

How ultrasonic cerebral tomosphygmography can contribute to the diagnosis of electrohypersensitivity, JBR Journal of Clinical Diagnosis and Research, 2018.

Irigaray, Phillipe et al. (2018b)

Oxidative stress in electrohypersensitivity self-reporting patients: results of a prospective in vivo investigation with comprehensive molecular analysis, International Journal of Molecular Medicine, 2018.

Irigaray, Phillipe et al. (2018c)

Beneficial effects of a fermented papaya preparation for the treatment of electrohypersensitivity self-reporting patients: results of a phase I-II clinical trial with special reference to cerebral pulsation measurements and oxidative stress analysis, Functional Foods in Health and Disease, 2018.

Johannson, Olle et al.

A case of extreme and general cutaneous light sensitivity in combination with so-called “screen dermatitis” and “electro-sensitivity” – a successful rehabilitation and vitamin A treatment – a case report, Journal of the Australasian College of Nutritional and Environmental Medicine, April 1999.

Johansson, Olle.
Aspects of studies on the functional impairment electrohypersensitivity, IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science 10 (2010).

Kato, Yasuko and Olle Johansson.
Reported functional impairments of electrohypersensitive Japanese: a questionnaire survey, Pathophysiology, March 2012.

Kirschvink, J.
Microwave absorption by magnetite: a possible mechanism for coupling nonthermal levels of radiation to biological systems, Bioelectromagnetics, 17:187-194 (1996).

Ladberg, Gunilla.
Forced to disconnect: electrohypersensitive fugitives in Sweden, 2010.

Leach, Victor and Steven Weller and Mary Redmayne.
A novel database of bio-effects from non-ionizing radiation, Reviews on Environmental Health, 2018.

Leszczynski, Dariusz.

Review of the scientific evidence on the individual sensitivity to electromagnetic fields (EHS), Reviews of Environmental Health, 2021.

Le Monde
Premiere reconnaissance d’un handicap du a l’electrosensibilite en France (First recognition of a disability due to electrosensitivity in France), Le Monde/AFP, Aug 25, 2015.

LeRoy, J. et al.
Treatment efficacy: a survey of 305 MCS patients, The CFIDS Chronicle, Winter 1996.

Levallois, P. et al.
Study of Self-Reported Hypersensitivity to Electromagnetic Fields in California, Environmental Health Perspectives, 2002, 110 Supp 4, 619-623

Levy, A.
Teenager ‘Kills herself in cry for help over allergy to wi-fi', Daily Mail, Dec 1, 2015.

Loria-Kohen et al.
Multiple chemical sensitivity: Genotypic characterization, nutritional status and quality of life in 52 patients, Medicina Clinica, (Spain), 149, 141-146, 2017.

Li D, Chen H, Odouli R
Maternal Exposure to Magnetic Fields During Pregnancy in Relation to the Risk of Asthma in Offspring, Archives of Pediatric Adolescent Medicine, August 2011

Lyskov, E., M. Sandstrom and K. Mild.

Neurophysiological study of patients with perceived electrical hypersensitivity, International Journal of Psychophysiology, November 2001.

Mariea, Tamara and George Carlo.
Wireless radiation in the etiology and treatment of autism: clinical observations and mechanisms, Journal of Australian College of Nutritional and Environmental Medicine, August 2007.

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Electromagnetic Hypersensitivity: Evidence for a Novel Neurological Syndrome, International Journal of Neuroscience, 121, 670-676, 2011

McCampbell, A.
Multiple Chemical Sensitivity, Environmental Health Connection, 2011.

McColl, Mary Ann, Anna Jarzynowska and S.E.D. Shortt.
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Malek, F. et al.

Effect of short-term mobile phone base station exposure on cognitive performance, body temperature, heart rate and blood pressure of Malaysians, Nature Scientific Reports, 5, 2015.

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Michaels, David. The triumph of doubt, New York: Oxford University Press, 2020.

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Mortazavi, Ghazal et al.
Increased release of mercury from dental amalgam fillings due to maternal exposure to electromagnetic fields as a possible mechanism for the high rates of autism in the offspring: introducing a hypothesis, Journal of Biomedical and Physical Engineering, March 2016.

Mortazavi, SMJ et al.

High-field MRI and mercury release from dental amalgam fillings, International Journal of Environmental Medicine, 5, April 2014.

MWN – Microwave News, 2006.
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MWN – Microwave News, 2010.
Scams galore, Microwave News, Oct 20, 2010.

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Radiofrequency and extremely low-frequency electromagnetic field effects on the blood-brain barrier, Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine, 27:103-126, 2008.

Nordin, S. et al.
Odor and noise intolerance in persons with self-reported electromagnetic hypersensitivity, International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, September 2014.

Nordstrom, G.
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Electromagnetic fields act via activation of voltage-gated calcium channels to produce beneficial or adverse effects, Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, Aug 17, 2013, 958-965.

Pall, Martin. Microwave frequency electromagnetic fields (EMFs) produce widespread neuropsychiatric effects including depression, Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy, 75, 43-51, 2016.

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Overlap in prevalence between various types of environmental intolerance, International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health, 2013.

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Fetal and neonatal responses following maternal exposure to mobile phones, Saudi Medical Journal, 29, 218-223, 2008.

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Electromagnetic hypersensitivity: a systematic review of provocation studies, Psychosomatic Medicine, 67, 2005.

Rubin, G. J. et al.
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Schooneveld, Hugo and Juliette Kuiper.
Electrohypersensitivity (EHS) in the Netherlands – a questionnaire survey,, 2007.

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2008 (updated 2022)